Turkey Tail Mushroom Products
Turkey Tail mushrooms (Trametes versicolor), has been the subject of a flush of recent studies suggesting that the compounds contained within this mushroom have anti tumor properties. Wasser and Weis (1999) noted that medicinal mushrooms have a long history of use in folk medicine against cancer of the stomach, esophagus, lungs etc. Many exhibit antitumor properties and provided effects to the immune system and might be useful in treating a variety of disease conditions. Polysaccharide-K is present in hot water extracts of turkey tail mushrooms. This constituent possesses immune stimulatory activity, and “has demonstrated antitumor efficacy in multiple types of cancer.” (Quayle, Coy, Standish & Lu, 2015)
Please keep in mind that nowhere on this website am I making any claims of any kind. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. I am only sharing my research with you -which is referenced here on the page.
Turkey Tail Products from Emerald Castle Farms
After my latest blood draw, my doctor has decided that I’m no longer diabetic and my blood is not hypercoagulating like it was. I no longer have to take the blood thinners I was on. The doctor and I both believe this is because of the turkey tail and chaga extracts. I truly believe it is helping me.
We use both alcohol and water to extract the most beneficial substances from the raw material. Hence, a double extract. We first extract over time (at least a month) in alcohol. We then normally do three water extractions on the material after we remove the alcohol extract. The water extracts are then reduced to a similar volume as the alcohol extract. The alcohol and water extracts are then combined to provide a robust extract product that consists of approximately 25% alcohol by volume. After combining, the raw extract is then allowed to rest to remove unwanted sediments. The finished extract is then packaged in new bottles, labeled, and sealed to be tamper proof.
Turkey Tail Mushroom Extract
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About Turkey Tail and its Benefits
Without doing exhausive research on the subject, there are a significant number of scientific studies which show turkey tail mushrooms contain some powerful and highly beneficial properties which can be used medicinally. These medicinal mushrooms have been used in traditional folk medicine for hundreds if not thousands of years. But, the human studies on these natural medicinals are mostly from outside the United States. Yet, with brief research, human studies show the following non inclusive list of conditions with which turkey tail mushrooms may benefit:Breast cancer 8, 10, 11
Colorectal cancer 2, 5, 7
Gastric cancer 3, 4
Immune function 1
Non-small cell lung cancer 9
Papillomavirus (HPV) 1
Prebiotic effects 6
The question is evident -why do we not hear more about these medicinal mushrooms from doctors and pharmaceutical companies in the United States? Well, I may have found the anwser. Shortly after the United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval for a study funded by the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Masa Sasagawa a researcher at Bastyr University, in a 2012 article explains why natural products like mushrooms are lacking in human trials. The reason is because of federal funding. If a program is federally funded, the researchers must seek and gain approval from the FDA before conducting the research. As Sasagawa noted, natural products are not consistent and are very complex containing thousands of individual elements. This makes specifically identifying a particular constituent and its mode of action very difficult. Additionally, because medicinal mushrooms have been used in traditional folk medicine for hundreds and even thousands of years, makes obtaining patents on the derivatives unlikely. This removes the high dollar profit big pharmaceutical companies look for when funding private research.
Read the article here
As a result, most of the human studies listed here were done ourside the United States.
When we begin to consider animal studies and studies in vitro we discover the potential for benefit from the constituents contained in the turkey tail mushroom are significant. Again, this is a non-inclusive listing found with brief research:Analgesic (pain-killer) 13
Anti-tumor 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30
Autoimmune diseases 18
Diabetic bone properties 14
Human gastric cancer 30
Human liver cancer 26
Human pancreatic cancer 30
Immunomodulatory actions 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32
Leukemia 16, 17
Prostate cancer 15
Although most of the research that I've listed on this page was done in vitro (in a Petri dish) or on animals, there are some very significant human studies using the constituents of the turkey tail mushrooms in clinical studies. I am not making any claims of any kind. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases. I am only presenting scientific research and encouraging you to do your own homework and come to your own independent conclusions. I’ve tried to only make it easier for you. All of these articles can be looked up online. Start with pasting the title into Google Scholar. (scholar.google.com)
Some Scientific Studies on Human Subjects
Donatini, B. (2014). Control of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by Medicinal Mushrooms, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum: A Preliminary Clinical Trial. International journal of medicinal mushrooms,16(5).
Human clinical trial. Positive effects on HPV. In this study, a group of 41 patients positive for HPV were treated with a combination of turkey tail and reshi mushroom. After two months, 88% of the group were clear of the human papillomavirus.
Mitomi, T., Tsuchiya, S., Iijima, N., Aso, K., Suzuki, K., Nishiyama, K., ... & Oya, K. (1992). Randomized, controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK® in curatively resected colorectal cancer. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 35(2), 123-130.
- After surgery, colorectal cancer patients were found to have higher disease free and survival rates when given a turkey tail constituent in addition to common cancer medications.
Nakazato, H., Koike, A., Saji, S., Ogawa, N., Sakamoto, J., Nakazato, H., ... & Sakamoto, J. (1994). Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. The Lancet, 343(8906), 1122-1126.
This study was performed on gastric cancer patients in Japan. A constituent of turkey tail mushroom was given in addition to standard onocologic care. The researchers found that the protein-bound polysaccharide (extracted from turkey tails) improved the five year disease free rate and also the survival rate (11.3% and 13% respectively).
Niimoto, M., Hattori, T., Tamada, R., Sugimachi, K., Inokuchi, K., & Ogawa, N. (1988). Postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy with mitomycin C, futraful and PSK for gastric cancer. An analysis of data on 579 patients followed for five years. The Japanese journal of surgery, 18(6), 681-686.
- Constituents of turkey tail mushroom given in combination with other drugs to treat gastric cancer in Japan showed the mushroom constituent to be a useful adjuvant immunochemotheraply.
Ohwada, S., Ikeya, T., Yokomori, T., Kusaba, T., Roppongi, T., Takahashi, T., ... & Kawate, S. (2004). Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with oral Tegafur/Uracil plus PSK in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: a randomised controlled study. British journal of cancer, 90(5), 1003-1010.
- In a study of stage II and stage III colorectal cancer patients, the patients who were given a turkey tail mushroom component in addition to common onocologic medications daily for two years had a higher disease free rate at five years. Additionally, those patients who received the mushroom dirivative experienced reduced recurrence of 43.6% and reduced mortality by 40.2%. In the stage III patients the disease free and overall survival was increased 60% and 74.6% respectively.
Pallav, K., Dowd, S. E., Villafuerte, J., Yang, X., Kabbani, T., Hansen, J., ... & Kelly, C. P. (2014). Effects of polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor and amoxicillin on the gut microbiome of healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial. Gut microbes, 5(4), 458-467.
Human clinical trial. Prebiotic. In this study, constituents of Turkey Tail mushrooms modulated the damage caused by amoxicillin to the intestinal microbiome composition
Torisu, M., Hayashi, Y., Ishimitsu, T., Fujimura, T., Iwasaki, K., Katano, M., ... & Nomoto, K. (1990). Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, 31(5), 261-268.
- This study was performed on patients after colorectal cancer surgury. The group who were given a turkey tail mushroom dirivative had higher disease free rates as well as lower mortality rates.
Torkelson, C. J., Sweet, E., Martzen, M. R., Sasagawa, M., Wenner, C. A., Gay, J., ... & Standish, L. J. (2012). Phase 1 clinical trial of Trametes versicolor in women with breast cancer. ISRN oncology, 2012.
Turkey tail mushroom preparations improved immune status in breast cancer patients after primary oncologic treatment. Up to 9 grams of preparation a day was found to be safe for the patients in the study.
Tsang, K. W., Lam, C. L., Yan, C., Mak, J. C., Ooi, G. C., Ho, J. C., ... & Lam, W. K. (2003). Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptide slows progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Respiratory medicine, 97(6), 618-624.
- Turkey tail constituents appears to slow the progression of non-small cell lung cancer.
Wang, J., Dong, B., Tan, Y., Yu, S., & Bao, Y. X. (2013). A study on the immunomodulation of polysaccharopeptide through the TLR4-TIRAP/MAL-MyD88 signaling pathway in PBMCs from breast cancer patients.Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology, 35(4), 497-504.
Positive effects on breast cancer cells.
Wong, C. K., Bao, Y. X., Wong, E. L. Y., Leung, P. C., Fung, K. P., & Lam, C. W. K. (2005). Immunomodulatory activities of Yunzhi and Danshen in post-treatment breast cancer patients. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 33(03), 381-395.
- Turkey tail mushroom products were given orally to women who had undergone treatment for breast cancer along with their other medications. Findings indicated that the turkey tail suppliment had a beneficial immunonoloical function in post threatment of breast cancer patients.
Wong, C. K., Tse, P. S., Wong, E. L. Y., Leung, P. C., Fung, K. P., & Lam, C. W. K. (2004). Immunomodulatory effects of Yun Zhi and Danshen capsules in health subjects—a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. International immunopharmacology, 4(2), 201-211.
- Constituents of turkey tail mushrooms were found to provide a boost to healthy subjects' immune system at the cellular level without adverse effects to the body.
- Chan, S. L., & Yeung, J. H. (2006). Polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor induce hyperalgesia via inflammatory mediator release in the mouse. Life sciences, 78(21), 2463-2470.
- This study noted that a constituent of turkey tail mushrooms proved an analgesic (pain killer) effect of up to 92.9%. However, the authors go on to determine that the same constituent also causes inflammation, which they were able to successfully manage through pretreatment with anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Chen, C. H., Kang, L., Lo, H. C., Hsu, T. H., Lin, F. Y., Lin, Y. S., ... & Shen, C. L. (2015). Polysaccharides of Trametes versicolor Improve Bone Properties in Diabetic Rats. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry,63(42), 9232-9238.
- Turkey tail mushroom constituents had a positive effect on bone properties in diabetic rates.
- Hsieh, T. C., & Wu, J. M. (2001). Cell growth and gene modulatory activities of Yunzhi (Windsor Wunxi) from mushroom Trametes versicolor in androgen-dependent and androgen-insensitive human prostate cancer cells.International journal of oncology, 18(1), 81-88.
- An extract of turkey tail showed positive results in the treatment of prostate cancer.
- Hsieh, T. C., & Wu, J. M. (2013). Regulation of cell cycle transition and induction of apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells by the combination of Coriolus versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum. International journal of molecular medicine, 32(1), 251-257.
- Extracts from turkey tail mushroom show antitumor activity including inhibition and apoptosis. Reshi mushrooms share this trait. This study found that the turkey tail extract used in the study might be enhanced by adding reshi constituents.
- Hsieh, T. C., Kunicki, J., Darzynkiewicz, Z., & Wu, J. M. (2002). Effects of extracts of Coriolus versicolor (I'm-Yunity™) on cell-cycle progression and expression of interleukins-1β,-6, and-8 in Promyelocytic HL-60 leukemic cells and mitogenically stimulated and nonstimulated human lymphocytes.The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 8(5), 591-602.
- Extracts of turkey tail mushrooms were tested on human leukemia cells with positive results including suppression and apoptosis.
- Lee, C. L., Jiang, P., Sit, W. H., Yang, X., & Wan, J. M. F. (2010). Regulatory properties of polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor and its combined effect with ciclosporin on the homeostasis of human lymphocytes. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 62(8), 1028-1036.
- Findings suggest positive use of turkey tail constituents as a immunomodulatory adjuvant in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
- Turkey tail mushrooms “are frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti- tumor and immunomodulatory activities.” A substance derived from turkey tail mushrooms boosts the immune response.
- Li, F., Wen, H., Zhang, Y., Aa, M., & Liu, X. (2011). Purification and characterization of a novel immunomodulatory protein from the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor. Science China Life Sciences, 54(4), 379-385.
- Turkey tail mushroom constituents are known to possess anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities, and enhance the immune system.
- Lu, H., Yang, Y., Gad, E., Inatsuka, C., Wenner, C. A., Disis, M. L., & Standish, L. J. (2011). TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the antitumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy. Clinical Cancer Research, 17(21), 6742-6753.
- A polysaccharide constituent of turkey tail mushroom was found to positively affect human natural killer cells. Natural killer cells are important to antitumor effects of some cancer medications and the turkey tail extract appears to have helped the medications be more effective.
- Lu, H., Yang, Y., Gad, E., Wenner, C. A., Chang, A., Larson, E. R., ... & Disis, M. L. (2011). Polysaccharide krestin is a novel TLR2 agonist that mediates inhibition of tumor growth via stimulation of CD8 T cells and NK cells. Clinical cancer research, 17(1), 67-76.
- Turkey tail mushroom constituents have “potent antitumor effects via stimulation of both innate and adaptive immune pathways.”
- Maruyama, S., Akasaka, T., Yamada, K., & Tachibana, H. (2009). Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) directly enhanced IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 63(6), 409-412.
- Constituents of turkey tail mushrooms show positive activity in human B cells. The protein-bound polysaccharide-K constituent appears to “directly act on B cells and simultaneously enhances both humoral immunity and cellular immunity.”
- Quayle, K., Coy, C., Standish, L., & Lu, H. (2015). The TLR2 agonist in polysaccharide-K is a structurally distinct lipid which acts synergistically with the protein-bound β-glucan. Journal of natural medicines, 69(2), 198-208.
- Polysaccharide-K is present in hot water extracts of turkey tail mushrooms. This constituent possesses immune stimulatory activity, and “has demonstrated antitumor efficacy in multiple types of cancer.”
- Ramberg, J. E., Nelson, E. D., & Sinnott, R. A. (2010). Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature. Nutrition journal, 9(1), 1.
- Certain extracts from turkey tail mushrooms “improved survival and immune function in human studies of cancer patients.
- Sekhon, B. K., Sze, D. M. Y., Chan, W. K., Fan, K., Li, G. Q., Moore, D. E., & Roubin, R. H. (2013). PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment. Food chemistry, 138(4), 2201-2209.
- Constituents of turkey tail mushroom have “demonstrated anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects.”
- Silva, A. M., Miranda, A., Fernandes, E., Santos, S., Fraga, I., Santos, D. L., ... & Bezerra, R. M. (2013). Endopolysaccharides from Ganoderma resinaceum, Phlebia rufa, and Trametes versicolor affect differently the proliferation rate of HepG2 cells. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology,169(6), 1919-1926.
- Turkey tail mushroom constituents had a 40% reduction on cell growth and showed antiproliferative properties when applied to human liver cancer cells.
- Standish, L. J., Wenner, C. A., Sweet, E. S., Bridge, C., Nelson, A., Martzen, M., ... & Torkelson, C. (2008). Trametes versicolor mushroom immune therapy in breast cancer. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 6(3), 122.
- Clinical studies have shown that immune therapy using polysaccharides constituents of turkey tail mushrooms has a positive effect and “may be warranted as part of a comprehensive cancer treatment and secondary prevention strategy.”
- Wasser, S. P., & Weis, A. L. (1999). Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective.Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, 19(1).
- Medicinal mushrooms have a long history of use in folk medicine against cancer of the stomach, esophagus, lungs etc. Many exhibit antitumor properties and provided effects to the immune system and might be useful in treating a variety of disease conditions.
- Wenner, C. A., Martzen, M. R., Lu, H., Verneris, M. R., Wang, H., & Slaton, J. W. (2012). Polysaccharide-K augments docetaxel-induced tumor suppression and antitumor immune response in an immunocompetent murine model of human prostate cancer. International journal of oncology, 40(4), 905-913.
- Turkey tail mushroom constituents have “immunomodulatory and tumor suppressive activities.” This study shows that a turkey tail mushroom extract used in combination with a common cancer medication enhanced “prostate cancer tumor suppression, apoptosis and antitumor responses.”
- Yamasaki, A., Shoda, M., Iijima, H., Nagai, S., Wada, J., Suzuki, H., ... & Ikebe, M. (2009). A protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, enhances tumor suppression induced by docetaxel in a gastric cancer xenograft model.Anticancer research, 29(3), 843-850.
- Turkey tail mushroom constituents enhanced tumor suppression against human gastric and pancreatic cancer cells.
- Yang, Y., Inatsuka, C., Gad, E., Disis, M. L., Standish, L. J., Pugh, N., ... & Lu, H. (2013). Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces IL-1β via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Innate immunity, 1753425913513814.
- One of the constituents in turkey tail mushrooms is shown to provide immune modulatory effects.
- Yu, Z. T., Liu, B., Mukherjee, P., & Newburg, D. S. (2013). Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.Plant foods for human nutrition, 68(2), 107-112.
- Turkey tail mushroom is purported to have many health benefits. This study found that one of the constituents of turkey tail contains prebiotic components which affect human gut microbiota and pH in a positive way.
Other Scientific Studies and References
Please...do your own research before using!
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